(BIVN) – Kīlauea volcano continues to erupt at the summit, with all lava confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater within the summit caldera.
From the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory on Thursday, June 15:
Halemaʻumaʻu Eruption Observations: The eruptive vent in the southwest wall of Halemaʻumaʻu continues effusing into the lava lake in the far southwestern portion of the crater. Intermittent spattering at this vent was visible in overnight webcam views. At this time, it is the only active eruptive vent; yesterday morning there was weak lava effusion from another source near the western eruptive vent from the January–March 2023 eruption, but this site has shown no signs of continued activity over the past 24 hours.
The surface of the southwestern lava lake continues to circulate and has been slowily rising, with an elevation increase of approximately 0.5 meters (1.5 feet) over the past day. Lava circulation also continues within the central basin that became the focus of effusion during both the 2021–2022 and early 2023 eruptions. No active lava has been observed in the northern or eastern portions of the crater over the past day. A live-stream video of the crater is available at (here).
Summit Observations: Summit tiltmeters briefly tracked moderate inflation starting late yesterday morning, but it slowed in the afternoon and tilt is trending slightly deflationary so far today. Summit seismic activity is dominated by eruptive tremor—a signal resulting from fluid movement, and commonly associated with eruptive activity. Volcanic gas emissions in the area remain elevated; a sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate of approximately 5,300 tonnes per day was measured yesterday, Wednesday, June 14.
Rift Zone Observations: No unusual activity has been noted along the East Rift Zone or Southwest Rift Zone; steady but low rates of ground deformation and seismicity continue along both. Measurements from continuous gas monitoring stations in the middle East Rift Zone—the site of 1983–2018 eruptive activity—remain below detection limits for SO2.
Hazard Analysis: The eruption at Kīlauea’s summit is occurring within a closed area of Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. High levels of volcanic gas—primarily water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2)—are the primary hazard of concern, as this hazard can have far-reaching effects down-wind. As SO2 is continuously released from the summit during the eruption, it will react in the atmosphere to create the visible haze known as vog (volcanic smog) downwind of Kīlauea. Vog information can be found at (here).
Additional hazards include Pele’s hair and other lightweight volcanic glass fragments from the lava fountains that will fall downwind of the fissure vents and dust the ground within a few hundred meters (yards) of the vent (s). Strong winds may waft lighter particles to greater distances. Residents and visitors should minimize exposure to these volcanic particles, which can cause skin and eye irritation.
Other significant hazards also remain around Kīlauea caldera from Halemaʻumaʻu crater wall instability, ground cracking, and rockfalls that can be enhanced by earthquakes within the area closed to the public. This underscores the extremely hazardous nature of Kīlauea caldera rim surrounding Halemaʻumaʻu crater, an area that has been closed to the public since late 2007.
The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) continues to closely monitor Kīlauea volcano. HVO will continue to issue daily Kīlauea volcano updates until further notice. Additional messages will be issued as needed.